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Description Magnesium is an essential mineral. It is the second most abundant nutrient stored in body tissue after calcium.
Function/ Used for Magnesium is needed for the formation of many enzymes in the body which release energy from food. It is also vital for the nervous system, muscle movement and for the formation of healthy bones and teeth.
Intake Recommended intake

EU NRV: 375mg

 

UK average daily intake

Requirements vary depending on age and gender. The UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey lists up-to-date intake requirements and average intakes.1

 

As a supplement Available as a single supplement. Also commonly available as part of a multivitamin and mineral formula.

Different multivitamin and minerals products will vary in the percentage NRVs they include. People should always check the label for information about a specific product.

Found in (dietary sources) Magnesium is present in all green plants. The main sources are unrefined cereals and wholemeal bread, green leafy vegetables, and peanuts.

Over 80 per cent of magnesium is lost in the removal of the germ and outer layers of cereal grains.

Deficiency Symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, weakness, insomnia, diarrhoea.

Hypocalcaemia (low calcium levels in the blood) is common in moderate to severe magnesium deficiency.

Obvious clinical signs of deficiency are uncommon.2

Precautions and contraindications Doses exceeding the Safe Upper Level are best avoided in renal (kidney) impairment.

Safe Upper Level: 400mg/day3

Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding There is no evidence of adverse effects in pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Interactions e.g. with other medications Excessive alcohol intake may increase the loss of magnesium in urine.

Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics can increase the loss of magnesium in urine and lead to magnesium depletion.

Magnesium can reduce the absorption of the antibiotics tetracyclines, which should be taken at least two hours before or after a magnesium-containing supplement.

People taking heart medication should consult their doctor or pharmacist before taking magnesium.2, 4

Adverse effects Doses of 3–5grams have a laxative effect.
References 1.     https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey

2.     Mason, P. Dietary Supplements. Pharmaceutical Press, London, 2001.

3.     Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, 2003.

4.     Gaby, A. R. A-Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. HealthNotes 2006.

 

 

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Description Manganese is an essential trace mineral.
Function/ Used for Manganese activates  some enzymes  so they begin to work. It is also essential for the formation of certain enzymes, one of which is superoxide dismutase, a powerful antioxidant enzyme that neutralises potentially damaging free radicals.
Intake Recommended intake

EU NRV: 2mg

 

UK average daily intake

Intake of manganese is not routinely tracked by government data. The UK, average daily adult intake from food sources in 2000/01 was 3mg per day.1

As a supplement Not generally available as a single supplement. Commonly available as part of a multivitamin and mineral formula.

Different multivitamin and minerals products will vary in the percentage NRVs they include. People should always check the label for information about a specific product.

Found in (dietary sources) Nuts, pulses, wholemeal bread and cereals and green vegetables. Tea is a rich source of manganese and possibly the biggest source of manganese for many people in the UK.
Deficiency Manganese deficiency in individuals consuming mixed diets is very rare. Symptoms thought to be associated with deficiency include weight loss, dermatitis, hypocholesterolaemia (low levels of cholesterol in the blood), depressed growth of hair and nails and reddening of black hair2.
Precautions and contraindications Safe Upper Level:

General  population: 4mg/day3

Older people: 0.5mg/day (older people may be more sensitive to manganese)

Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding There is no evidence of adverse effects in pregnancy.
Interactions e.g. with other medications Oral contraceptives may interfere with the absorption of manganese.

Manganese can reduce the absorption of Ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.2,4

Adverse effects Long term intakes of daily doses of 4mg and over of manganese may lead to muscle pain and fatigue2.
References 1.     Manual of Nutrition 12th Ed., Dept. of Health, June 2012.

2.     Mason, P. Dietary Supplements. Pharmaceutical Press, London, 2001.

3.     Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, 2003.

4.     Gaby, A. R. A-Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. HealthNotes 2006.

 

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Description Molybdenum is an essential ultratrace mineral.
Function/ Used for Mineral involved in the functioning of several important enzymes in the body. Aids in carbohydrate and fat metabolism and helps in iron utilisation.
Intake Recommended intake

EU NRV: 50µg

 

UK average daily intake

Estimated intake range between 50-400µg a day1

As a supplement Not generally available as a single supplement. Commonly available as part of a multivitamin and mineral formula.

Different multivitamin and minerals products will vary in the percentage NRVs they include. People should always check the label for information about a specific product.

Found in (dietary sources) The richest sources of molybdenum include dairy products, liver and kidney, nuts, dark green leafy vegetables, wholegrains, peas and beans and brown rice.
Deficiency No known deficiency symptoms.
Precautions and contraindications The molybdenum intake from the UK diet (estimated maximum intake 230µg /day) is not expected to present any risk to health. However, there is insufficient evidence about the safety of molybdenum intakes in excess of those naturally occurring in the diet.2

Safe Upper Level: Current estimates indicate a safe upper level of 600µg a day for adults.1

Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding Safety of use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is unknown.
Interactions e.g. with other medications None reported.3
Adverse effects Molybdenum is a relatively non-toxic element. High dietary intakes (10–15mg daily) have been associated with elevated uric acid concentrations in blood and an increased incidence of gout3.
References 1.     http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/efsa_rep/blobserver_assets/ndatolerableuil.pdf

2.     Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, 2003.

3.     Mason, P. Dietary Supplements. Pharmaceutical Press, London, 2001.

 

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